This Pathophysiology course is a comprehensive exploration of the fundamental aspects of disease processes. Beginning with an introduction to basic concepts, epidemiology, and factors influencing health, the course progresses to an in-depth examination of cellular function, growth, injury, aging, and death. Genetic control of cell function and inheritance is thoroughly covered, encompassing topics such as chromosomes, gene technology, and recombinant technology. The final unit focuses on inflammation, tissue repair, and wound healing. By the end of this course, students will have a holistic understanding of the mechanisms underpinning diseases, equipping them to analyze clinical manifestations and contribute to advancements in healthcare.

The course on Pharmacotherapeutics is designed to provide a comprehensive understanding of the principles governing the use of medications in healthcare. In Unit 1, the focus is on introducing the fundamental concepts, including the distinctions between therapeutics and pharmacology, the approval process for drugs, and the crucial role nurses play in ensuring safety. Unit 2 delves into Pharmacokinetics I, exploring how drugs move within the body, covering absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion. Unit 3 extends this discussion, addressing drug distribution, excretion processes, therapeutic ranges, and the difference between loading and maintenance doses. Unit 4 focuses on Pharmacodynamics, emphasizing patient variability in drug responses, the therapeutic index, dose-response relationships, and the concepts of potency and efficacy. The course concludes with Unit 5, examining drug administration throughout the lifespan, including the impact of physiological changes on drug response during pregnancy, lactation, pediatric, and geriatric stages. Throughout the course, practical activities and exercises enhance understanding, and the relevance of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine is explored. Overall, the course equips nurses with the knowledge needed for safe and effective medication administration in diverse clinical scenarios.

 The following topics will be covered and these include: person-centred moments and person-centred care, transformational culture through emancipatory practice development which focuses on both getting evidence into practice and creating a culture of innovation and effectiveness. Changes in culture of care and context: engagement, autonomy and connectedness and develop culture of effectiveness in a workplace, evidence- based practice and knowledge translation, enabling and sustainability change, skills improvement, safety of care and effectiveness, quality improvement process audit and quality measures shall also be covered.

This course will assist students develop knowledge of and apply the principles of self-management of chronic illnesses and co-morbidities that make a major contribution to global burden of disease as well as to look at prevention of chronic disease. Students will learn to assess clients with ongoing illness and to develop, implement and evaluate planned care and self-management strategies in the primary health care sector in collaboration with other relevant health professionals. Some of chronic illnesses are life threatening such as heart diseases and strike while require intense management such as diabetes. The common chronic diseases that will be referred to from time to time are hypertension, cardiac diseases, diabetes, cancers and arthritis.